For the venture the State Energy Department has been declared the nodal agency and has been entrusted with the responsibility of complying with the provisions of the unconventional energy policy of the state government.
A lump sum fee from the project holder in the solar energy park and annual operation and maintenance fee etc has been made permissible as per the guidelines of the Central Government.
For non-conventional energy, 17,360 MW capacity generation project will be developed by March 21, 2025, of which 12,930 MW capacity solar power project is targeted to be started. “At present 9305 MW capacity projects are in operation in the state and 2123 MW capacity solar power projects are in operation,” the statement added.
Jaipur: Rajasthan is at the No. 2 position in achieving the target for implementing rooftop solar projects in the country.
Gujarat, which was given a target of 3200 MW, has achieved 54%, while Rajasthan has set up 33% of the allocated 2300 MW capacity.
In terms of capacity by February 2022, Gujarat has come at No. 1 having a capacity of 1,936 MW while Maharashtra has a 921MW capacity. Rajasthan’s installed capacity stands at 748 MW.
Subodh Agarwal, secretary, department of energy, and CMD of Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation said that the state not only has the largest installed solar capacity in the country but also was second in achieving the rooftop capacity target allotted to it. TNN
State energy Minister Nitin Raut says that his government is shifting focus from conventional fuel to hydrogen for generation of electricity.
State PSUs will form a joint venture with petrol companies to set up EV charging stations on the premises of petrol pumps.
The Maharashtra Government has promised a strong support for the hydrogen and electric vehicles’ charging infrastructure at the “Alternative Fuel Conclave” organised at Pune. While Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray said that his government is planning to incentivize an ecosystem that helps the growth of electric vehicles and vehicles that run on alternate fuels, Energy Minister Nitin Raut declared that hydrogen will be employed in Maharashtra as an alternative fuel to generate power.
Nitin Raut said, “We are shifting our focus of generation of electricity from conventional fuel to hydrogen energy. Very soon, our State will be featured as a pioneer in the use of hydrogen energy.”
It was announced that the state government will amend the Renewable Energy Policy 2020 under which the 17360 MW of renewable energy is to realised. The policy has been relatively ineffective until now. The minister says that Maharashtra Government plans to better incentivize stakeholders here onwards.
Nitin Raut stated that the Energy Department plans to expand electric vehicles’ charging infrastructure in the state. He said, “In order to facilitate the increased use of green energy in the transport sector, Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company (MSEDCL) is proactively taking the initiative to establish the EV charging stations. Even as a part of asset monetization, Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company, Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company and Maharashtra State Power Generation Company have decided to form JV with Petrol companies to set up EV charging stations on the premises of petrol pumps.”
Nitin Raut also informed that if this model is successful, the next step would be to increase the number of charging stations in the schools and colleges’ premises, so that students would have easy access to charging.
“While taking initiatives, care has been taken to keep the electricity charges quite reasonable i.e. Rs 5.50 per unit in daytime use. However, during the night from 10 pm to 6 am the rate will be Rs 4.50 per unit. This shows our sincere commitment to reducing the carbon footprints,” said the Energy Minister.
MSEDCL is the nodal agency for the development of EV charging infrastructure in Maharashtra by encouraging the private sector. Maharashtra is leading the electric vehicles sales in India. In the first nine months alone of 2021-22, EV sales increased by more than 150 per cent.
As Maharashtra targets to have 10 per cent of all new registrations in the state from electric vehicles, Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray also requested the industry leaders to invest in manufacturing units of alternate fuels.
Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
The Working Group II contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report assesses the impacts of climate change, looking at ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities at global and regional levels. It also reviews vulnerabilities and the capacities and limits of the natural world and human societies to adapt to climate change.
The Sixth Assessment Report consists of contributions from each of the three IPCC Working Groups and a Synthesis Report (SYR), which integrates the Working Group contributions and the Special Reports produced in the cycle. The meeting to draft the outline of the Sixth Assessment Report took place in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) in May 2017. The draft outlines were approved by the 46th Session of the Panel in September 2017. More information on the sixth assessment cycle is available here.
The First-Order Draft of the Working Group II contribution to AR6 underwent an expert review from 18 October to 13 December 2019. The Second-Order Draft was reviewed by experts and governments from 4 December 2020 to 29 January 2021. The Final Government Distribution of the final draft of the report and Government Review of the Summary for Policymakers took place from 1 October to 26 November 2021.
The Working Group II contribution was considered during the 55th Session of the IPCC and the 12th Session of the Working Group II from 14 to 27 February 2022. The Summary for Policymakers was released during a press conference on 28 February 2022.
Authors and Review Editors
The full list of Authors and Review Editors for the Working Group I contribution by chapter is available here
Climate change threatens agriculture: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II has said the production of cereals like rice and maize, livestock and fisheries will be negatively impacted by increasing global temperatures.
Global warming conjures up images of glaciers melting, sea levels rising and forests disappearing. While all of these scenarios are devastating, people rarely imagine that their food supplies will be massively impacted by climate change.
“We’re already experiencing acute food and water shortages … If we look at two degrees of global warming we know that areas that are currently growing staple crops will not be able to grow those at the same level of efficiency and effectiveness. And so there are significant challenges coming for areas like South America, Africa, (sic) Asia, in terms of overall food production,” said Debra Roberts, one of the report’s co-chairs, in a press conference
What will be the impact?
Through changing weather patterns and increasing concentration of greenhouse gasses like methane in the atmosphere, agricultural productivity has already taken a hit. If global temperatures continue to rise unabated to more than 1.5 degrees C, then agricultural activity will be significantly affected and threaten to push millions into food scarcity.
Changing weather patterns can result in longer and severe periods of droughts and low precipitation. Extreme climatic conditions like extreme rainfall, heat waves and more can also negatively affect crops and harvests.
Increasing humidity and heat also contribute to making the agricultural workforce less productive as wet-bulb temperatures, where humidity and heat are measured together, will continue to increase to dangerous levels and lead to the loss of productive days.
“Differential human vulnerability to environmental hazards results from a range of social, economic, historical and political factors, all of which operate at multiple scales. Climate change is expected to have serious impacts for people living within these hotspot areas, as observed from loss of food crop yields to disasters such as floods, fluctuations in seasonal water availability or other systemic effects,” the report said.
Increased temperatures will cause yields to significantly reduce. Rice and maize, two of the staple crops in India and the subcontinent will be particularly affected.
“In India, rice production can decrease by 10 percent to 30 percent, and maize production b25 percent to 70 percent, assuming a range of temperature increase from 1 degree to 4 degrees Celsius,” the report said.
Fruits and vegetables are similarly at risk due to various climatic factors. Potatoes and other starchy roots and tubers, while more resistant to temperature change, are highly sensitive to water scarcity. Additionally, increased heat and water scarcity can have critical impact during the tuber initiation stage. The perennial tree crops like grapevine, olive, almond, apple, coffee, and cocoa are also vulnerable to climate change.
Fisheries will also take a massive hit as warmer waters in general will reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen in water bodies, reducing the maximum supported population of fish. Livestock animals will be under stress from higher temperatures themselves.
“Threats to food supplies and water availability, due to continued climate change, may increase the risk of social unrest and armed conflict, particularly in poorer countries, although other factors are also important,” the report added.
What can be done?
While the world needs to come together to ensure that climate change doesn’t see global temperature rise by 1.5 degrees C or more, at the same time adaptation measures need to be weighed in from this very moment. Adaptation and mitigation together can soften the blow of most of the climatic impact that global warming will have in the 21st century.
“Adaptation is a very important part of managing climate change impacts. However, our chapter and the report found that the effectiveness of most adaptation measures, including water-related measures, falls sharply at higher levels of global warming above 1.5 degrees, showing that adaptation alone will not solve the crisis,” said Aditi Mukherji, researcher at International Water Management Institute and contributing lead author for the Chapter 4 IPCC report, to Hindustan Times.
India’s transition towards a net-zero economy can contribute over $1 trillion by 2030 and $15 trillion by 2070 in economic impact, the World Economic Forum (WEF) has said in a report. The transition will also provide over 50 million new jobs.
The report said that the transition to low-carbon energy provides the most significant economic opportunity and accounts for $5-$7 trillion of the overall $15 trillion worth of economic opportunity.
India aims to become a net-zero economy by 2070 and has set a target of installing a non-fossil energy capacity of 500 GW by 2030, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said at the COP26 Summit at Glasgow, Scotland.
India is the third-largest greenhouse gas emitter, following the United States and China. Sectors like energy, agriculture, industry, transportation, and infrastructure contribute over 96% of the country’s overall greenhouse gas emissions.
To achieve a net-zero economy, India must focus on low-carbon energy, green mobility, decarbonization of energy-intensive industries, green infrastructure and cities, and sustainable agriculture
India is the third-largest power-consuming nation. The energy sector represents 40% of India’s greenhouse gas emissions. Of this, the combustion of coals accounts for 65% of total carbon dioxide emissions. The WEF report said that the country’s power consumption would increase by 4%-5%, compounded annual growth rate over the upcoming decade.
The country’s green energy transition needs to enhance with more renewable solutions like hybrid plus thermal, storage, and bundled solutions. India needs to phase out its coal power by 2060 to become a net-zero economy. The country’s solar and wind capacity should be over 7,400 GW by 2070 from the existing 100 GW.
The green energy transition will require significant investment in new energy infrastructure. In addition, reducing energy wastage in the distribution network through digital means and of aggregate technical and commercial loss can be crucial for emissions reduction.
The WEF report said that the transportation sector contributes to around 10% of its greenhouse gas emissions. In 2020, around 60% of India’s overall energy use in transport was from passenger transport and 40% from freight transport.
Indian Railways is the most energy-efficient mode of transport as it accounts for only 3% energy share in passenger transport energy for a 25% share in passenger transport activity. It also has a high reliance on the power generated from renewables to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions.
Earlier this year, Railways Minister Piyush Goyal said that the Indian rail network would be fully electrified by 2023 and run on renewable energy by 2030.
The transport sector is significantly dependent on oil and accounts for India’s 50% oil demand. Oil demand has doubled in the past two decades due to increasing vehicle ownership and road transport usage.
For its shift towards green mobility, the report noted that India must continue evolving its fuel efficiency standards with global standards. The country should also increase the usage of sustainable fuels like biofuels, gas-based fuels, and sustainable aviation fuel based on hydrogen technology.
The electrification of the transport sector would require a coordinated effort from auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), charging infrastructure providers, and government policymakers over the coming decades. The share of electric cars and trucks may need to reach 84% and 79%, respectively, by 2070.
The green mobility transformation is expected to provide investment opportunities worth $2-$4 trillion in the upcoming decades.
Decarbonization of energy-intensive industries
India’s manufacturing industries are a significant contributor to its carbon dioxide emissions. Iron, steel, cement, chemicals, and fertilizers sectors have the highest emission footprints and increase with economic growth and urbanization.
For their decarbonization, the sectors must continue energy-efficiency improvements; use carbon capture, utilization, and storage technologies; deploy new technologies with non-fossil feedstock; use zero-carbon fuels like biomass and green hydrogen.
The sectors’ transition will require investment in research and development to make new technologies, including affordable hydrogen. The government should provide support and incentives to sectors to move towards sustainable technologies.
The report noted that the decarbonization of energy-intensive industries would offer India a $2-$3 trillion investment opportunity.
Green buildings, infrastructure, and cities
In India, the top 25 cities account for over 15% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. The design of carbon-efficient new buildings and the modification and enforcement of building energy codes to track the energy performance of new and existing buildings can help reduce urban carbon dioxide emissions.
Green buildings, infrastructure, and cities could offer India a $2-$3 trillion investment opportunity.
The agriculture sector and livestock account for 18% of overall greenhouse gas emissions. For India, the shift to sustainable agriculture will be one of the most complex transitions. It will require a campaign to educate and enable over 100 million farmers to adopt precision agriculture to reduce carbon emissions. Precision agriculture includes reducing the usage of nitrogen and urea, sustainable animal husbandry, and shifting to renewable energy from diesel pumps.
The report said that India needs a multifold growth in government and private capital flows to build new green infrastructure, develop new technologies, and encourage individuals to shift to greener consumption patterns. A mature green finance sector would be critical for India’s net-zero transition.
The country has an opportunity to tap into deep pools of international capacity by reducing frictions and challenges that raise the capital cost for Indian projects. The potential roadmap to tap international funds includes measures to reduce hedging costs, adapt external commercial borrowing guidelines, and pragmatic use of innovation and de-risking instruments to help more projects reach expected risk/return profiles.
India needs to have clear execution plans, long-term policy stability, and financial infrastructure to attract foreign investment at a much higher scale for rapid solar market expansion.